CNC work - wood art in the present
A milling machine produces high quality parts with a high level of detail and surface finish. CNC milling machines use rotating tools to remove material according to the CAD file's instructions to create a workpiece. The milling process and coordinates are controlled by the milling machine's computer, so minimal human intervention is required to complete the manufacturing process.
CNC milling machines are designed for the mass production of many components from a variety of materials and plastics. The core function of the milling machine is to mechanically shape a workpiece into the desired shape.
How does CNC milling work?
In CNC milling, the machine reads coded instructions and then puts them into practice. It all starts with creating a 3D CAD file that represents the final part. Once the draft is ready, it is converted into a machine-readable format. The computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) software then exports this data into a CNC machine program, usually in G-code format, which acts as a guide and controls every movement of the machine. In this way, the CAD design is reproduced in the selected material with high accuracy and efficiency.
Using subtractive machining technology, CNC milling can produce large and small quantities of highly complex and intricate parts. Material is removed from a blank workpiece and the milling machine uses a rotating cylindrical tool called the milling cutter. Depending on the milling machine used, the machine can cut at different angles and move in different axes.
The final part is first designed using CAD (Computer-Aided Design) before being fed into the milling machine for final production.
What does a CNC milling machine do?
A CNC milling machine manufactures complex parts for various industries using subtractive machining technology. The milling machine cuts the workpiece and produces the final part with three, four or five axes. Depending on how many axes the CNC milling machine has, the more complex and complicated the finished part can be. A CNC milling machine is used in various industries - including aerospace and medical technology, and at Bosnic.ART also in wood processing - to produce complex parts.
CNC milling process
Depending on various factors, some milling machines are more suitable than others. The complexity of the CNC milling process depends on the final product design. The more important and valuable the part or product is, the more complex the design needs to be.
For complicated constructions that require high precision, e.g. For example, medical or aerospace components may require a more complex machine. This is done to achieve final design, execution and aesthetics. For simple parts that are machined for general purposes, less precision and high-quality processing are required. Complex and intricate designs usually require additional milling work.
Milling machines often use 3, 4 or 5 axes.
For simpler parts, fewer axes are needed to reach the final design. Simple geometries can usually be machined with a 3-axis milling machine. Easy to program and operate, they offer excellent accuracy at a low cost. The cutting tools are attached to a spindle that operates on three linear axes. They can spin at thousands of revolutions per minute, meaning even the sturdiest of materials can be cut through with ease and accuracy.
3-axis machines are the most common type of milling machine and can mill vertically (Z-axis), as well as in the X and Y directions.
Characteristics of a milling machine
The most important features of a milling machine can generally be summarized in seven parts. These include the following features:
Knee - The knee is fixed to the column but is adjustable. It supports the saddle and the work table. It can be lowered or raised in the Z-axis.
Column - The column is the main support structure of the machine. It serves as a reinforcement for the other machine parts.
Saddle - The saddle is above the knee and below the work table and can be moved parallel to the spindle axis. If necessary, it moves the workpiece horizontally.
Work Table - The area above the saddle to which the workpiece is attached. The work table of the milling machine is adjustable depending on the machine type and can be used vertically or horizontally.
Spindle - This is a rotating component that holds either the machine tool or the mandrel and is driven by an electric motor.
Spindle - The spindle is used in horizontal milling machines. It is inserted into the spindle and acts as an axis that can be used to mount various machine tools.
Frame - The frame is typically attached to the top of the collet on vertical milling machines where the spindle is journaled.
Machine Tool - The machine tool is the component that performs the milling operation. It is held by the spindle and removes material from the workpiece. There is a wide range of machine tools.